Sunday, December 8, 2019
There is clear evidence for and against the Second Reich being democratic, though in the years it only reaches Nascent Democracy, even if that. However, on the whole the Second Reich is most definitely based around Kaiser therefore quite far from democracy. Kaiser shows his power all throughout the three case studies; Hottentot Elections, Daily Telegraph Affair and the Zabern Crisis. As well as that it is clear from the Constitutional Theory that there is little to no democracy and that there is Kaiser Absolutism. According to the Second Reich constitution, it is clear that during the years of the Second Reich there was no democracy. The German Electorates could only elect the Reichstag, which had little power. The Reichstag was only able to accept or reject the laws that were proposed by the government and veto treaties agreed by the Kaiser. However, the Kaiser was able to summon and dissolve the Reichstag at any given time. Therefore most of the time the Reichstag would agree with Kaiser, which shows Kaiser Absolutism. This was similar for the Imperial Government. The Chancellor and the Cabinet did the day-to-day running of the Germany. However, at any given time the German Emperor was able to dismiss the Chancellor. Therefore at the end if something was not going according to Kaisers vision for Germany he has the power to change so. The first case study, the Hottentot Election was in 1907. The war in German West Africa causes outrage among the people and the Reichstag (SDP and ZP). This is because Germany commits Genocide twice. Later on the Kaiser and Chancellor worked on a budget together to collect taxes to spend in Africa, in hopes of improving and extending the Empire. However, both the ZP and SDP disapproved and therefore vetoed the budget. At this point the Reichstag shows its power by standing against the Kaisers wish. This shows Nascent Democracy as it is also about exercising the power, and here part of the Reichstag hoped to do so. However, the Second Reich constitution shows that Reichstag had little power as at any given point it could have been dissolved by the Kaiser. This is what happened in this case, the Kaiser dissolved the parliament and worked on a new propaganda with the Chancellor. This led to a massive win for Kaiser and therefore the Bundesrat voted yes for the budget and it became a law. This clearly shows Kaiser Absolutism as the Emperor used his power to his advantage, ignoring the majority. However, at the same time this case shows that there is also a slight Nascent Democracy as it proves that the Kaiser recognised the peoples vote, this is because he had to organise a whole propaganda in order to gain votes. The Daily Telegraph Affair was in 1908, when an interview on foreign affairs, with Kaiser, was published. As the result of the interview Kaiser lost diplomacy as well as damaged his and Germanys reputation. At this point the Chancellor had to step in as he was put in a bad position. The Chancellor told Kaiser that this situation cannot be repeated, to which the Emperor agrees to. However, after doing so he then dismisses the Chancellor. This shows that the Second Reich is a lot more democratic as it shows Nascent Democracy. This is because the Kaiser steps down and lets the Chancellor over take, at the same time he responds to the publics concern by doing so. However, at the same time this also shows Constitutional Monarchy as in a way it seems that Kaiser only did his speech and almost handed over the rest to the Chancellor, which almost seemed like it was part of the day-to-day running of Germany. On the other hand, this still shows slight Kaiser absolutism as he does dismiss the Chancellor, and therefore showing his power. So technically it seems that Kaiser did not have to listen to the Chancellor but by doing so he took the pressure off of himself. The last case was the Zabern Crisis. In 1913 Lieutenant Forstners racist actions lead to many demonstrations against him throughout Zabern. The major of Zabern made an attempt to move Forstner out to a different place but it failed as Kaiser did not consider this as a great issue. As a result Forstner could no longer take the pressure of the hate and therefore paralyses one of the locals and is put on trial, but in the army court. He however was deemed innocent, as the one in charge of the army court was Kaiser. The SPD demanded that Forstner is dismissed and therefore it leads to a vote of confidents in Chancellor. Even though the Reichstag vote against the Chancellor is still backed up by the Kaiser therefore there is no change. This shows that the Reichstag had achieved nothing, meaning that they have little power, which is backed up by the constitutional theory. Here the outcome is yet again one that shows Kaiser Absolutism. It clearly shows that once you are backed up by the Kaiser you are above everyone else power wise at that time, which shows the Emperors power On the whole, I believe that the Second Reich was not democratic. However, it can be said that it was heading towards Nascent Democracy as in every case the people put pressure on the government, setting political agenda. However, during that time it was Kaiser Absolutism as in every case I wrote about Kaiser used his power to change something, whether it had a big or a small impact on the final outcome. Therefore at the time it was not democratic as Kaiser was able and had the right to dismiss the main body that was elected by the people, the Reichstag.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
Getting your content will now be as simple as a click of your mouse! At Constant Content weÃ¢â¬â¢re always trying to improve your user experience and help you easily source the content you need for all of your projects. With that in mind, weÃ¢â¬â¢re launching our new Content Credits System, which will allow you to store a prepaid dollar amount on your Constant Content account that you can then use to instantly download articles without having to process multiple transactions through Paypal. Starting immediately, you can add funds to your account by visiting this page. All funds that you deposit into your account are totally secure and as good as cash. When youÃ¢â¬â¢re ready to make a purchase, your account will already be set to go. You will notice on the Cart and Order pages in your account that you have a new Use Content Credits option. Clicking on this button instantly applies your credits and the next screen you will see is the prompt to download your content. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re also adding new features to our Custom Content Request form which will help you to better plan your projects and coordinate with our freelance writers. Now when you are submitting your request, the form will automatically calculate your budget for the project and make sure that you have enough Content Credits to cover your order. You can always check on your current account balance, and the general health of your Constant Content account by visiting your account page. You can also see a detailed history of all transactions you have made and Content Credits youÃ¢â¬â¢ve used by going to this page. We always love to hear from our customers and would truly appreciate your feedback on this new system. Please feel free to send us any feedback or comments you have via our contact page.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
19 Insta-Poets You Need toKnow ItÃ¢â¬â¢s official: weÃ¢â¬â¢re living in the Ã¢â¬Å"age of the Insta-poet.Ã¢â¬ The Ã¢â¬Å"Insta-poetÃ¢â¬ is defined as aÃ young poet who publishes verse primarily on social media. With social mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s dominance in our ever-evolving digital world, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not surprising to hear that Instagram, alongside various other social media platforms, is contributing to the success of aspiring artists. While there are undoubtedly many pros and cons involving social media, it has granted individuals the opportunity to showcase their works and make intimate connections with global audiences. In fact, almost half (47 percent) of poetry books sold in the U.S. last year were written by Insta-poets andÃ twelve of the top 20-bestselling poetry authors in 2017 were Insta-poets.Ã With over 2.5 million Instagram followers, twenty-five-year-old Rupi Kaur is the most notable and successful of these Insta-poets. She has achieved rare, mainstream success since the release of her 2016 debut poetry collection, milk and honey, which sold over 2.5 million copies worldwide, outselling all other poetry books in 2016 and 2017. Her poems are simple and personal, exploring themes of womanhood, racism, and self-love. Kaur is just one of the many Insta-poets whoÃ¢â¬â¢ve received book deals through the promotion of their work across their social media profiles. While some may feel that this new-wave style of contemporary poetry is breaking the mold of the traditional genre and lacks quality writing, others note that social media is allowing artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ work to be more accessible than ever before. Social media is allowing these poets to share their work with the millennial audiences that value diversity and self-expression. Libraries and bookstores are now dedicating specific sections to Ã¢â¬Å"Instagram poetry. Insta-poetry is drastically changing the landscape of the genre and itÃ¢â¬â¢s safe to say that itÃ¢â¬â¢s only going to continue to grow. Were featuring 19 Insta-poets you need to know right now. 1. Rupi Kaur View this post on Instagram larger than life A post shared by rupi kaur (@rupikaur_) on Mar 6, 2018 at 7:42pm PST 2. Nikita Gill 3. Atticus View this post on Instagram In Dusk #atticuspoetry #atticus #dusk #forever #love A post shared by ATTICUS (@atticuspoetry) on Apr 5, 2018 at 5:02am PDT 4. R.M Drake 5. Lang Leav View this post on Instagram New poem Ã°Å¸â" ¤ #langleav #poetry #love A post shared by Lang Leav (@langleav) on Mar 31, 2018 at 5:19pm PDT 6. Tyler Knott Gregson View this post on Instagram Typewriter Series #2191 by Tyler Knott Gregson #tylerknott #love #haiku #wanderlust #poetry #photooftheday #typewriterseries #follow #beautiful #instagood #picoftheday #tylerknottgregson #poem #writers #typewriterseries #writersofinstagram #writersofig #poet #poetsofinstagram A post shared by Tyler Knott Gregson (@tylerknott) on Mar 27, 2018 at 5:48pm PDT 7.Ã Nayyirah Waheed 8. Christopher Poindexter View this post on Instagram Yes. #christopherpoindexter hand typed and signed poems available through link in bio Ã°Å¸Å' ¹ A post shared by Christopher Poindexter (@christopherpoindexter) on Apr 7, 2018 at 5:18pm PDT 9. Pavana 10. Amanda Lovelace 13. Gareth Egan 14. Amanda Torroni View this post on Instagram 2/30 TURNING WATER INTO WHISKEY A post shared by Amanda Torroni (@amandatorroni) on Apr 2, 2017 at 4:10pm PDT 15. Alfa View this post on Instagram If you have my books #AbandonedBreaths or #SilentSquall please tag me #alfapoet so I can find them Ã°Å¸ââ¢Ã°Å¸ââ¢Ã°Å¸ââ¢Ã°Å¸ââ¢ They are also Available in paperback on amazon. And through Barnes Noble, Book Depository, and more. _____ Ã°Å¸ââÃ°Å¸ââÃ°Å¸ââÃ°Å¸ââÃ°Å¸ââ https://goo.gl/oJvjFD #alfawrites #alfa #alfapoet #quotes #tattoo #poetry #poet #signs #aqua _______________ @alfa.poet @alfa.poet @alfa.poet A post shared by Alfa Holden (@alfa.poet) on Mar 22, 2018 at 10:49am PDT 16. Beau Taplin View this post on Instagram Ã°Å¸Å' ²Ã°Å¸Å' ²Ã°Å¸Å' ² my book Bloom is now available on Amazon, in Barnes Noble, and all good bookstores worldwide x. Love Beau A post shared by B E A U T A P L I N (@beautaplin) on Mar 20, 2018 at 2:23pm PDT 17. MvDarklight View this post on Instagram From The Rattling Grave by @mvdarklight Available Now!! Link in my about me. #mvdarklight A post shared by MVDARKLIGHT (@mvdrklt) on Dec 18, 2017 at 9:29am PST 18. Yrsa Daley-Ward View this post on Instagram From Ã¢â¬Ëbone.Ã¢â¬â¢ A post shared by Yrsa Daley-Ward (@yrsadaleyward) on Feb 28, 2018 at 5:40pm PST 19. Orenda View this post on Instagram be honest with yourself. @poetrybyorenda | part of my you must know me by now series // i started watching shameless and holy, why am i just getting into this now? its amazing. _ thank you for reading. A post shared by orenda (@poetrybyorenda) on Oct 29, 2017 at 5:02pm PDT Regardless of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s stance on the matter of social media-infused poetry, there is no denying that Instagram poetry is present and will only continue to grow as long as there is an audience welcoming it. Ultimately, if poetry is art and art is subjective, then whoÃ¢â¬â¢s to say whatÃ¢â¬â¢s considered poetry and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s not? (Featured Image via Unsplash.com)
Friday, November 22, 2019
A Biography of King John of England King John was King of England from 1199 to 1216. He lost many of his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s Angevin lands on the continent and was forced to concede numerous rights to his barons in the Magna Carta, which has led to John being considered a colossal failure. In later years many poor reputations have been rolled back by modern supporters, and while Johns financial management is now being reassessed, the anniversary of the Magna Carta saw almost every popular commentator criticize John for - at best - terrible leadership and at worst terrible oppression. While historians are more positive, this is not getting through. His missing gold appears in the national English newspapers every few years but is never found. Youth and Struggle for the Crown King John was the youngest son of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine to survive childhood, being born in 1166. It appears that John was the favored son of Henry, and so the king tried to find him large lands to live from. One grant of several castles, given when John was first to be married (to an Italian heiress), provoked anger among his brothers and started a war between them. Henry II won, but John was given only a little land in the resulting settlement. John was betrothed in 1176 to Isabella, heir to the rich earldom of Gloucester. When JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s older brother Richard became heir to his fathers throne, Henry II wanted to promote Richard to inheriting England, Normandy, and Anjou, and give John RichardÃ¢â¬â¢s current holding of Aquitaine, but Richard refused to concede even this, and another round of family warfare followed. Henry turned down the Kingdom of Jerusalem for both himself and John (who begged to accept it), and then John was lined up for the command of Ireland. He visited but proved to be seriously indiscrete, developing a careless reputation and returning home a failure. When Richard rebelled again Ã¢â¬â Henry II was at the time refusing to recognize Richard as his heir Ã¢â¬â John supported him. The conflict broke Henry, and he died. When Richard became King Richard I of England in July 1189, John was made Count of Mortain, plus given other lands and a large income, as well as staying as Lord of Ireland and finally marrying Isabella. In return, John promised to stay out of England when Richard went on crusade, although their mother persuaded Richard to drop this clause. Richard then went, establishing a martial reputation that saw him considered a hero for generations; John, who stayed home, would end up achieving the precise opposite. Here, as with the Jerusalem episode, Johns life could have ended up very different. The man who Richard left in charge of England soon grew unpopular, and John set up what was almost a rival government. As war loomed between John and the official administration, Richard sent a new man back from the crusade to take charge and sort things out. JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s hopes of immediate control were dashed, but he still schemed for the throne, sometimes in conjunction with the King of France, who was continuing a long tradition of interference in their rival. When Richard was captured returning from the crusade, John signed a deal with the French and made a move for the crown of England itself, but failed. However, John was prepared to surrender notable parts of his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s lands to the French in return for their recognition, and this became known. Consequently, when RichardÃ¢â¬â¢s ransom was paid, and he returned in 1194, John was exiled and stripped of all possessions. Richard relented some in 1195, returning some lands, and totally in 1196 when John became the heir to the English throne. John as King In 1199 Richard died - while on a campaign, killed by a (un)lucky shot, before he could ruin his reputation - and John claimed the throne of England. He was accepted by Normandy, and his mother secured Aquitaine, but his claim to the rest was in trouble. He had to fight and negotiate, and he was challenged by his nephew Arthur. In concluding peace, Arthur kept Brittany (held from John), while John held his lands from the King of France, who was recognized as JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s overlord on the continent, in a manner greater than was ever forced out of JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s father. This would have a crucial impact later in the reign. However, historians who have cast a careful eye over JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s early reign have identified a crisis had already begun: many nobles distrusted John because of his previous actions and doubted whether he would treat them correctly. The marriage to Isabella of Gloucester was dissolved because of alleged consanguinity, and John looked for a new bride. He found one in the form of another Isabella, heiress to AngoulÃ ªme, and he married her as he tried to involve himself in the machinations of the AngoulÃ ªme and Lusignan family. Unfortunately, Isabella had been engaged to Hugh IX de Lusignan, and the result was a rebellion by Hugh and the involvement of French King Philip II. Had Hugh married Isabella, he would have commanded a powerful region and threatened JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s power in Aquitaine, so the break benefitted John. But, while marrying Isabella was a provocation to Hugh, John continued to snub and anger the man, pushing his rebellion. In his position as French King, Philip ordered John to his court (as he could any other noble who held lands from him), but John refused. Philip then revoked JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s lands, and a war began, but this was more a move to strengthen the French crown than any vote of faith in Hugh. John began by capturing a mass of the leading rebels who were sieging his mother but threw the advantage away. However, one of the prisoners, his nephew Arthur of Brittany, mysteriously died, leading most to conclude murder by John. By 1204 the French had taken Normandy - JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s barons undermined his war plans in 1205 Ã¢â¬â and by the start of 1206 theyÃ¢â¬â¢d taken Anjou, Maine and chunks of Poitou as nobles deserted John all over the place. John was in danger of losing all the lands his predecessors had gained on the continent, although he managed small gains during 1206 to stabilize things. After being forced both to reside in England more permanently and to produce more money from his kingdom for war, John proceeded to develop and strengthen the royal administration. On the one hand, this provided the crown with more resources and strengthened royal power, on the other it upset nobles and made John, already a military failure, even more unpopular. John toured extensively within England, hearing many court cases in person: he had a great personal interest in, and a great ability for, the administration of his kingdom, although the goal was always more money for the crown. When the see of Canterbury became available in 1206, JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s nomination Ã¢â¬â John de Gray - was canceled by Pope Innocent III, who secured Stephen Langton for the position. John objected, citing traditional English rights, but in the following argument, Innocent excommunicated John. The latter now started draining the church of funds, raising a large sum he partly spent on a new navy Ã¢â¬â John has been called the founder of the English navy - before conceding that the pope would be a useful ally against the French and coming to an agreement in 1212. John then handed his kingdom over to the Pope, who bestowed it on John as a vassal for a thousand marks a year. While this might seem curious, it was really a cunning way to get Papal support against both France, and against the rebel barons of 1215. By the end of 1214, John had succeeded in mending his bridges with the top of the church, but his actions had alienated many further down and his lords. It also angered the mona stic chroniclers and writers historians have to use and may be one reason why so many of the modern histories have been so critical of King John, while the modern historians are increasingly peeling criticism away. Well, not all of them. Rebellion and Magna Carta While many lords of England had grown discontented with John, only a few had rebelled against him, despite widespread baronial discontent stretching back to before John took the throne. However, in 1214 John returned to France with an army and failed to do any damage except gain a truce, having once more been let down by vacillating barons and the failures of allies. When he returned a minority of barons took the chance to rebel and demand a charter of rights, and when they were able to take London in 1215, John was forced into negotiations as he looked for a solution. These talks took place at Runnymede, and on June 15, 1215, an agreement was made on the Articles of the Barons. Later known as Magna Carta, this became one of the pivotal documents in English, and to some extents western, history. In the short term, Magna Carta lasted just three months before the war between John and the rebels continued. Innocent III supported John, who struck back hard at the baronÃ¢â¬â¢s lands, but he rejected a chance to attack London and instead wasted the north. This allowed time for the rebels to appeal to Prince Louis of France, for him to gather an army, and for a successful landing to take place. As John retreated north again rather than fight Louis, he may have lost a portion of his treasury and definitely fell ill and died. This proved a blessing for England as the regency of JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s son Henry were able to reissue Magna Carta, thus splitting the rebels into two camps, and Louis was soon ejected. Legacy Until the revisionism of the twentieth century, John was rarely well regarded by writers and historians. He lost wars and land and is seen as the loser by giving the Magna Carta. But John had a keen, incisive mind, which he applied well to government. Unfortunately, this was negated by an insecurity about people who could challenge him, by his attempts to control barons through fear and debt rather than conciliation, through his lack of magnanimity and insults. It is difficult to be positive about a man who lost generations of royal expansion, which will always be clearly chartable. Maps can make for grim reading. But theres little that merits calling King John evil, as a British newspaper did.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
What Should government do to protesct society from mass shootings - Research Paper Example The debate rages on. In recent years, the debate has become increasingly vocal, as mass shootings have begun to invade the American landscape. Some argue that such shootings are the very reason why the Constitution guarantees citizens the right to bear arms. Others, however, argue that society has changed in the past 300 years and the time for strict gun control has come. There are valid points to both sides and this paper will highlight some major positions, while arriving at the conclusion that the right to own and maintain a gun must remain a part of the American fabric for now and the foreseeable future. The Argument for Gun Control Individual freedom and liberty is a cornerstone birthright that comes with being an American citizen. There are certain rights that are written into the Constitution in an effort to prevent any future government from taking that liberty away. As time goes on, however, and society develops, the language written into the Constitution can become muddled and filled with doubt and uncertainty. There are some, for example, that claim the right to own a gun is not actually a fundamental right guaranteed under the second amendment. Much of this opinion involves cause and effect, and examining that actual reasoning behind the second amendment. There are multiple reasons a person might own a gun. Some may own a gun to hunt wild game, while others will maintain a functioning weapon for purposes of self-defense. Still others might have a gun due to military or police service, and some might own a gun to commit a crime such as robbing a bank. The modern day argument in support of gun control, then, largely centers on this issue. Since the Constitution does not possibly permit the right of a gun owner to use such a weapon in the commission of a crime, then it certainly does not permit the right of every individual in the country to own a gun. Guns are permitted under the second amendment for purposes of military service. Few would argue that point. Many would argue, however, that the Constitution does not inherently protect the right of gun ownership for other reasons (Stevens para. 4). The center of this debate is on the language in the Second Amendment. While it seems so clear to some, it is far from it to others. While the courts have generally upheld the principle that Americans have the right to gun ownership, there is a growing movement in government circles to have the courts take another look at the language and to issue new rulings. On this side of the issue, the opinion is that gun ownership is a right for some, but not for others. The distinction comes in the language used to write this part of the Constitution. The actual purpose governing the inclusion of the Second Amendment into the Constitution was to allow citizens to protect themselves from a well-regulated militia. In other words, if the government took away the rights of the people, the people had a right to fight back, or to defend themselves. In th is vein, people have argued for gun control on the basis that gun control, and the limiting of gun ownership, is permissible under these guidelines (Faria 133). In recent years, there has been an unfortunate rise in violence on school campuses, particularly colleges and universities. Some have used this as an argument for gun ownership and the permissibility of students to be able carry guns on campus in order to better protect themselves against threats, such as mass shootings. Others, however, have argued that this is the very reason we should have gun control. By taking guns out of the hands of all individual citizens, they claim
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Langauge structure - Assignment Example Arabski (1979 pp.135-143) says that making errors is part of the process of acquiring a language and is mostly influenced by transference and simplification. English and Arabic languages are different in many ways and as expected Arab speakers encounter many phonological, morphological and semantic problems when learning English. Arabic speakers do not recognize how to use adjectives in sentences. This is because in Arabic adjectives come after the noun whereas in English adjectives come before the noun. Most Arabic speaks erroneously transfer their knowledge of adjectives during the course of learning English (Cruse 1986 pp.40). This paper will discuss how Arab speakers struggle using adjectives while giving specific learner errors. The discussion will focus on some published language teaching material and it will analyze, compare and evaluate these errors. Project Description Theoretical Framework Studying errors second language learners make is a field that has created a buzz amon g linguists. Several theories have been advanced, and one such theory is the Contrastive Analysis This is a process that explains the comparative aspects of the Mother tongue (MT) and the Target Language (TL). James (1998) provides examples for instance consonant clusters, tense and comparison of the form and meaning of the two languages. This according to Fries (1945) is supposed to determine the oddities that result to interference and error. The reason being a second language learner may find some aspects of the target language easy to learn and others hard. The assumption second language learners make is that it will be easy to learn those aspects that are similar to their native language and very difficult to learn those aspects that are different from their native language. Contrastive Analysis has been conducted on many languages. Khuwaileh and Al Shoumali (2000) studied the writing of Arabic learners of academic English. He was focusing the frequent errors on coherence tense errors, lack of cohesion and parts of speech errors. The study compared the Arabic language and English. Bataineh (2005) investigated the problems Arab learners of language and translatorsÃ¢â¬â¢ encounter when translating Arabic sentences. The focus was on articles. Contrastive Analysis has faced some criticism and thus other theories emerged to fill the gap. The theory advocating for the existence of a Ã¢â¬Å"psychological structure latent in the brainÃ¢â¬ brought in the idea of Interlanguage (IL) seen in the process of learning a second language. Selinker (1972 pp.209-231) claimed that second language learners created some interim grammars in trying to achieve the target language but this vocabulary changes depending on the task of extraction and the context. IL is influenced by Transfer of training, Language transfer, Strategies of second language communication, Overgeneralization and Strategies of second language learning. As it is impossible to acquire a second language w ithout making errors, many linguists have invested time and resources in analyzing errors and why they occur. There are several reasons for studying errors. According to Corder (1975 pp.122-154) errors can tell a linguist how much a second language learner has acquired and what other aspects of the language require to be emphasized. Also as, James (1980) put it, errors are also markers of how the process of acquiring a second
Sunday, November 17, 2019
School Conflict Case Study Essay This case study examines the conflict over whether public schools in the United States of America should teach biology from the viewpoint of evolution or of creation, according to the Christian Bible. Although this battle has raged for several decades, it is still an emotionally charged, often-debated issue. Through research on this subject, one finds the term Ã¢â¬Å"intelligent design,Ã¢â¬ and while this initially sounds like there may be a third contingency in this debate, upon closer examination, one finds that Ã¢â¬Å"intelligent designÃ¢â¬ is tantamount to creationism. Likewise one finds the term Ã¢â¬Å"environmental creationism,Ã¢â¬ which is also a pseudonym for creationism. Those who believe in evolution contend that their view is the result of scientifically verifiable non-biased information. Those who believe in creationism contend that the Christian Bible is a book written through divine inspiration and therefore, whatever is written in the Bible is the ultimate authority. Basically the evolutionists believe they are correct because their information can be proven scientifically, while the creationists believe that their information is from an infallible source that is more certain than the evolutionistsÃ¢â¬â¢ scientific data. Since public schools are supported by public taxes, some believe that church and state must be kept separate. This is supported by the fact that, Ã¢â¬Å"the federal government has repeatedly denied the introduction of creationism into public schools as it is a direct violation of the separation of church and state (Lac, Hemovich, Himelfarb, 2010, p. 253). Yet, it is also believed that the preferences of the local citizenry should be consulted in deciding which theory or theories should be taught in public school biology. Currently local school boards actually seem to hold sway over what type of orientation their local schools will use in biology. Even when there are state or local rulings favoring one side or the other, some classroom teachers include their personal preferences (or those of their supervisors) in choosing which orientation is taught in their classrooms. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"in Dover, Pennsylvania, the school board adopted a general policy endorsing Ã¢â¬Å"intelligent designÃ¢â¬ and district administrators composed the statement that was read to high school biology classes as they began the evolution unitÃ¢â¬ (Lerner, 2002, p. 287). Some attempts toward reconciliation of these viewpoints have resulted in having both viewpoints presented in the biology classrooms of certain districts. This idea was condoned by the George W. Bush administration in 2005, stating that Ã¢â¬Å"children should be exposed to multiple ideas in schoolÃ¢â¬ (Warmick, p. 305). Another problem with presenting both evolution and the creationism in the classroom occurs when one tries to qualify which type of creationism is to be taught. The most commonly known creation story from the book of Genesis in the Christian Bible; however, there are actually 3 different versions of creation within the book of Genesis, some resembling the ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian creation stories, with a substitution of one God for many gods (Carson-Newman University, 2013). Another Christian variant of creationist theory is that of Ã¢â¬Å"intelligent designÃ¢â¬ which argues that Darwinian science does not contradict the Bible, while maintaining that a super-being planned transformation of species (Johnson, 2011, p. 15). Lastly, there is the version called Ã¢â¬Å"environmental creationism:Ã¢â¬ in which Ã¢â¬Å"the use of creationist language is employed without the explicit Christian contextÃ¢â¬ (Nelson, 2010, p. 513). What can be done as the battle over creationism versus evolution rages on in courtrooms and at state and local school board meetings across our nation? As mentioned previously, some localities have settled on including both sidesÃ¢â¬â¢ viewpoints; however, it is difficult to present both possibilities without bias because they come from different schools of thought. The evolutionists believe scientific fact to be ultimate truth, yet the creationists consider the word of God to be the ultimate truth. Is there a way to honor the U. S. Constitution and the taxpayers simultaneously, some of whom believe in creation and some of whom believe in evolution? If we decide to include both creationism and evolution and to consider the debate rhetorical, we run the risk of neither side being satisfied because there are those on both sides who believe that their way is the only way and who want to Ã¢â¬Å"winÃ¢â¬ the battle. If traditional approaches have not settled this issue, then perhaps it is time to try alternative dispute resolution measures, the attempts to present both evolution and creationism in the classroom, not-withstanding. Peter Tolman ( 2006, p. 544) writes that Ã¢â¬Å"intractable conflicts are rooted in the ways we make sense of the world and are not solvable in the traditional sense. Ã¢â¬ He further states that, Ã¢â¬Å"It is primarily through assumptions about what is unquestionably Ã¢â¬Å"right,Ã¢â¬ in a given context that different groups develop and maintain incommensurate worldviews and conflicts persist (Tolman, 2006, p. 545). Ã¢â¬ Our issue here is obviously one of intractable conflict. Our issue is not one in which both sides desire to reach a win-win solution; however, productive outcomes will depend on introduction of the principles of negotiation, beginning with the foundational abilities for conflict resolution.